Uniwersytet WrocławskiInstytut Historii Sztuki Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

dr hab. Anna Markowska, Professor of the University of Wrocław


Anna Markowska - an art historian, graduated from the Jagiellonian University in Cracow (M.A., 1984) and The Institute of Art in The Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw (Ph.D., 1995). Her professional experience includes working at The Jagellonian University Museum as a curator of the sculpture department (1984-89), teaching at an art college (Państwowe Liceum Sztuk Plastycznych) in Cracow (1984-89), working for the Print Biennial (and then Triennial) in Cracow (first as a press spokesperson and afterwards as the editor-in-chief of the "Pawilon" magazine), interpreting, guiding and curating art exhibitions , collaborating with such international undertakings as The Cosmological Pictures exhibition by Gilbert&George at the Palace of Art (Pałac Sztuki) in Cracow (1991) and Alan Davie exhibition at Galeria M in Cracow2 , writing either reviews or essays3 ; interviews4 and finally - accompanying some artists in their work by visiting their studios, conversing about their work and writing introductory essays in catalogues5 and leading public meetings with artists and art writers6 .

Between 1992-1994 Markowska gave lectures in The Pedagogical University of Cracow and between 1997 and 2006 she was connected with The University of Silesia in Katowice. Her intellectual biography was deeply influenced by meetings with two eminent professors of art history - Mieczysław Porębski7 and Wiesław Juszczak. During her Cracovian studies she was mainly interested in Italian Renaissance and Baroque (M.A. thesis - Porządki narodowe w teorii architektury nowożytnej (XV-XVIII w) [National Orders in the Theory of Early Modern Architecture in 15th-17thc.], written under the supervision of Professor Adam Małkiewicz in 1984) but the impossibility of obtaining any foreign scholarship in the 1980s during and after the martial law and at the same time entering a very stimulating artistic environment in Cracow swayed her towards contemporary art. However, during her first job in The Jagellonian University Museum she attributed a sculpture Hercules with a Serpent, which existed in a literature as belonging to the "Michelangelo Circle", to Alessandro Algardi8 . Her 1995 Ph.D. thesis II Grupa Krakowska [The Second Group of Cracow - an artistic association of such outstanding artists as Tadeusz Kantor and Jerzy Nowosielski, among others] opened her a possibility to lecturing at universities and for a long time focused her scope of interest on site specificity9 and artistic stategies (a group, a leader, reasons of fixing different hierarchies 0 . Her further research resulted in a book Sztuka w Krzysztoforach. Między stylem a doświadczeniem [Art at Krzysztofory. Between Style and Experience], Cieszyn-Kraków 2000 , numerous articles on Tadeusz Kantor, The Group of Cracow leader 2 , and other artists 3 , including the ones who - according to Markowska - were unjustly marginalized. Jonasz Stern as the subject of the book Język Neuera. O twórczości Jonasza Sterna [Neuer's Idiom. On Jonasz Stern's Art, Cieszyn 1998 4 and Jadwiga Maziarska 5 were especially important for her research. In the case of Jonasz Stern, a Holocaust survivor, Markowska raised the question of the role of art for him and tended to emphasise its importance in reconstructing the human community. In the case of Jadwiga Maziarska, Markowska for the first time revealed the artist's unique method of sketching previously unnoticed by other scholars (her paintings, usually described as abstract, involve a very accurate transposition of photographs from popular magazines). The feminist methodology in the analysis of Maziarska's position in The Group of Cracow turned out to be particularly fruitful. It was applied to some others analyses of women artists in Poland (Katarzyna Kobro, Alina Szapocznikow and Alicja Żebrowska) .

During her work at the University of Silesia in Katowice (the Cieszyn branch) she wrote reviews of exhibitions in the university gallery published in a monthly "Gazeta Uniwersytecka" 7 ; gave lectures for future cameramen - students of the Television, Film and Photography Image Department at The University of Silesia. She also collaborated with Górnośląskie Centrum Kultury [Upper Silesian Centre of Culture] 8 and traced works of eminent Upper Silesian artists 9 . The collaboration with The Faculty of Architecture of The Cracow University of Technology resulted in annual participation in international conferences organized by Professors Maria Misiągiewicz and Dariusz Kozłowski20 .

Her postdoctoral degree was approved at The Institute of Art of The Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw thanks to her book Definiowanie sztuki - objaśnianie świata. O pojmowaniu sztuki w PRL-u [Defining Art - Describing the World. On Understanding Art in the People's Republic of Poland], Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Katowice 2003 (English and German summary) 21 , which summed up her research in the field of Polish art under Communism. Especially important - according to the author - was the analysis of ideological entanglements and their relations to the methodology and ways of restoration with an understanding of the sense of a work of art, and her case study was the post-war renovation of the oldest university building in Poland - Collegium Maius of The Jagellonian University. She also analyzed artistic and methodological strategies of scholars as strategies of power and resistance in the times of captivity and censorship.

Since 2006 Markowska has been presenting a monographic lecture on American art of the last five decades in The Institute of Art History at The University of Wrocław, focusing on desublimation processes and the ethos of the real. She wrote articles on such artists as Mary Kelly, Robert Gober22 , Matthew Barney23 or Robert Smithson.

Markowska still continues her research on Polish art under the Communist regime25 , focusing also on the paradigm shift after 198926 while giving lectures on contemporary culture in Poland. In the fall semester 2007/2008 she was a guest professor at The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

1 Poza obrazem [Beyond Image] Galeria BWA Kraków 1990; Vladimir Gažovič, Dušan Kállay, Janni Konstantynowski Puntos, Stasys Eidrigevičius, Slovak Art Gallery, Cracow 2003 - English version of the catalogue.
2 Alan Davie [catalogue in Polish and English languages]; Spotkanie z Alanem Davie [Meeting Alan Davie], "Art&Business" 1991, No 7-8.
3 Być ze sztuką to wszystko czego pragniemy [To Be with Art is All We Ask - on Gilbert&George art], "Projekt" 1988, No 1; Dialektyczna obsceniczność. Prolegomena do ekonomii porównawczej [Dialectical Obscenity. Prolegomene to Comparative Economy], in:http://free.art.pl/artmix/archiwum.htm; Galerie i marszandzi [Galleries and Dealers], "Kraków" 1987, No 4, Potocka's Art Galleries, "Art Line International", 1988, Vol. 4, No.1; Chvala samoty, "Vytvarny Život" [Bratislava, Czechoslovakia], No 8, 1990; Mudrci, proroci a abstraktne esperanto, "Vytvarny Život" [Bratislava, Czechoslovakia], 1991 No 2-3.
4 Artysta Prezes. Rozmowa ze Zbigniewem Makarewiczem [Artist-President. An Interview with Zbigniew Makarewicz]. "Tumult" 1991, No 9; Trzeba powiedzieć, czego chcemy. Rozmowa z R. Loeglerem [We Should Say What We Want. An Interview with Romuald Loegler] , "Kraków", 1990, No 2.
5 Łzy i kamienie: prowizoryczne wyniki sondy [Tears and Stones: Provisional Poll Results] in a catalogue Alina Raczkiewicz, Marian Gologorski Gallery, Cracow 1998; To, co być może [What Can Come True], in a catalogue Jerzy Wroński, Kopciogramy, Starmach Gallery, Cracow 1998; Co się zdarzyło w Bydgoszczy [What Happened in Bydgoszcz], in: a catalogue of a print exhibition by Zbigniew Bielawka, Jaccobco 2000, Jan Fejkiel Gallery, Cracow 1998,; Bettina Bereś. Bez gruntu [Bettina Bereś. With No Ground], Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej Wieża Ciśnień, Konin, 2002.
6 A meeting with Zbigniew Libera in the cycle I Am, Therefore I Create in Bunkier Sztuki in Cracow, November 2002, a meeting with Ewa Toniak, discussing her new book Olbrzymki: Kobiety i socrealizm [She-Giants: Women and Social Realism], April 2008, Studio BWA, Wrocław.
7 Granica współczesności jako rytualna androgeneza [Paradigm Shift as Ritual Androgenesis], published in a book dedicated to Porębski: Mistrzowi Mieczysławowi Porębskiemu uczniowie, ed. by T. Gryglewicz, M. Hussakowska, L. Kalinowski, A. Małkiewicz, Kraków 2000, focused on Ikonosfera [Iconoshere] by Porębski.
8 Genus demonstrativum. O rzeźbie "Herkules duszący węża" z dawnego kolegium teologicznego UJ" [On Sculpture "Hercules Strangling a Serpent" from the Former Theological College of the Jagiellonian University], "Opuscula Musealia" 1987, No 2, English Summary.
9 Krzysztofory - podziemna świątynia sztuki [Krzysztofory -The Underground Temple of Art], in Klejnoty i sekrety Krakowa. Teksty z antropologii miasta [Jewels and Secrets of Cracow. Texts on Urban Anthropology], ed. by R. Godula, Wydawnictwo Wawelskie, Kraków 1994.
10 See: Dlaczego Grupa (Uwagi i komentarze) [Why a Group (Remarks and Commentaries)], in a book Grupa Krakowska 1932-1994 [Group of Cracow 1932-1994], Narodowa Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej Zachęta, Warszawa 1994; Krzysztofory: indiańskie samobójstwo? [Krzysztofory: An Indian Suicide?] in Sztuka dzisiaj [Art Now], ed. by M. Poprzęcka. Warszawa 2002.
11 See reviews of the book - Marcin Lachowski: Krzysztofory - miejsce mityczne [Krzysztofory -A Mythical Place], "Znak" 2002, No 1; M. Porębski, Dziś to znaczy kiedy? [Today Means When?], "Res Publika Nowa" 2002; W. Ćwiertniewicz, Dziennik Malarza [A Painter's Diary], Otwarta Pracownia, Kraków 2002.
12 Rewizjonistyczny szok w Krzysztoforach [A Revisionist Shock at Krzysztofory] in a book W cieniu krzesła. Malarstwo i sztuka przedmiotu Tadeusza Kantora [In the Shadow of a Chair. Painting and Art of an Object by Tadeusz Kantor], ed. by T. Gryglewicz, Kraków 1997; Tadeusz Kantor. Der Wanderer durchs Jahrhundert, in a book: Verteidigung der Moderne Positionen der Polnischen Kunst nach 1945, Katalog zur Ausstellung im Museum Würth, Künzelsau 2000).
13 Tadeusz Brzozowski [Polish and English versions], Galeria BWA Kraków, 1992.
14 Stern was also the subject of an article Wyprowadzenie z piekła. O twórczości Jonasza Sterna [Leading Out of Hell. On Jonasz Stern's Art], "Roczniki Humanistyczne KUL", Vol. 47, No. 4, English Summary)
15 Jadwiga Maziarska "Fotomontaże, obrazy, inspiracje malarskie" [Jadwiga Maziarska, "Photomontages, Images and Painter's Inspirations"], Krzysztofory Gallery, Cracow, 17th June-5 July 1998 - an exhibition leaflet; Poza tak zwanym czasem [Beyond So-Called Time - on Jadwiga Maziarska's painting]. "Pawilon" 1991, No 1.
16 See: Czytanie Derridy, oglądanie obrazów a pożytki z historii [Reading Derrida, Looking at Pictures versus Benefits from History], in a book: Historia Sztuki po Derridzie [Art History After Derrida], ed. by Ł. Kiepuszewski, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2006; Antypatriarchalna furia [Anti-Patriarchal Fury], http://free.art.pl/artmix/archiw_1/anna_apf.html.
17 Akupunktura i litomagia. Grafiki Vladimira Gažoviča, [Acupuncture and Lithomagic. Prints by Vladimir Gažovič], "Gazeta Uniwersytecka", July-September 2002' Mariusz Mruczek (1964-2002). "Gazeta Uniwersytecka ", November 2002.
18 She participated in the commemorative symposium to Tomasz Struk Pamięci Tomasza Struka - Ślady pamięci [To Tomasz Struk - Traces of Memory], Katowice Górnośląskie Centrum Kultury, November 2005, with a speech Czasowniki na służbie. Tomasz Struk - ścieranie, odsłanianie, gładzenie [Verbs on Duty. Tomasz Struk - Scrubbing, Revealing, Polishing].
19Biblijne czyli współczesne [Biblical Means Contemporary]: an essay in a catalogue Krystyna Filipowska. Góry Biblijne. Grafika [Krystyna Filipowska, Biblical Mounts. Prints], Galeria Duszpasterstwa Środowisk Twórczych, Łódź, November 2002; Ni będący, ni aktorzy [Neither Being Nor Playing Roles], an essay on Krystyna Pasterczyk's art in a catalogue "Prywatne przestrzenie" Stanisław Dróżdż, Leszek Lewandowski, Piotr Lutyński, Krystyna Pasterczyk, Andrzej Szewczyk, Jan Śliwka [Private Spaces...] Galeria Sektor I, November 2001; Krystyna Pasterczyk. Mea culpa (a catalogue), Górnośląskie Centrum Kultury, March 2006 (Polish and English versions); .Antologia niepokojów czyli Der Wohltemperierte Flügel, cz.1 [Anthology of Anxieties] - on a book Wiedza zatroskana [Anxious Knowledge] by a painter Norbert Witek, "Gazeta Uniwersytecka" 2001, No 4: O rzeźbiarzu, który nie lubi postumentów [On a Sculptor Who Dislikes Plinths] - on Andrzej Szarek, "Gazeta Uniwersytecka" 2003, No 8 (108)).
20Nieodwracalne. O definicjach i granicach sztuki [Irreversible. On Definitions and Limits of Art], published in "Architektura. Czasopismo Techniczne" 2003, No.8-A, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, English Summary; Mikromegas: artysta-architekt [Micromegas: Artist-Architect], published in "Architektura. Czasopismo Techniczne" 2004, No. 10-A, English Summary; Ćwiczenia z niebudowania, dyskurs heterotopii. Rachel Whiteread i przestrzenie graniczne [Exercises in Non-Building, Heterotopia Discourse. Rachel Whiteread and Border Spaces], published in "Architektura. Czasopismo Techniczne" 2005 - Special Volume, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, English Summary; Kalifornijski niepokój: pamięć i krytyka jako tworzywo architektury [Californian Anxiety: Memory and Criticism as Architectural Raw Materials] - on the art of Andrea Zittel and Mike Kelley], published in "Architektura. Czasopismo Techniczne", Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, 2006, Vol. 9-A, English Summary).
21A book reviewed and accepted by professors: Waldemar Baraniewski, Wojciech Suchocki i Elżbieta Wolicka, press review by J. Wowrzeczka, Definiowanie-objaśnianie-pojmowanie [Defining-Explaining-Understanding], "Obieg" 2004, No 1 (69))
22 Amerykańskie Madonny. Macierzyństwo w twórczości Mary Kelly i Roberta Gobera [American Madonnas. Maternity in the Art of Mary Kelly and Robert Gober], "Quart" 2007, nr 2(4)
23 Protezy i amputacje a konstruowanie męskiego ciała w twórczości Matthew Barneya i Roberta Gobera [Prosthetic Attachments and Amputations - Construction of a Man's Body in the Art of Matthew Barney and Robert Gober], in a book: Ucieleśnienia II. Płeć między ciałem i tekstem [Incarnations II. A Gender Between the Body and the Text], ed. by J. Bator, A. Wieczorkiewicz, Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN, Warszawa 2008.
24 Mokre oczy w Muzeum. Częściowo zagrzebana szopa Roberta Smithsona a muzealne dylematy [Wet Eyes in a Museum. A Partially Burried Wood-Shed and Museological Dilemmas], in a book Muzeum sztuki. Od Luwru do Bilbao [An Art Museum. From The Louvre to Bilbao], ed. by M. Popczyk, Muzeum Śląskie, Katowice 2006.
25Orfickie transkrypcje granicy. Późne gwasze Andrzeja Wróblewskiego [Orphic Transcriptions of a Border. Late Gouaches by Andrzej Wróblewski], in a book: Andrzej Wróblewski, ed. by J. Kordjak-Piotrowska, Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, Warszawa 2007.
26An article Znikająca figura [The Vanishing Figure - on the art of Zbigniew Libera and Oskar Dawicki], in a book: Figury i figuracje [Figures and Figurations], ed. by M. Kitowska-Łysiak [et al.], Warszawa 2006.